Casinos, gambling, liquor and vice




Marshal Mosley and Officer McKinley captured 10 white crap shooters at Point Cadet yesterday. They pleaded guilty in court and were fined $5 and court costs.  Marshall Mosely had started to break up gambling in Biloxi without regards to who indulges in it.  Stir clear of alluring cards and fascinating bones, if you do not want to appear in city court.(The Biloxi Daily Herald, January 17, 1899, p. 8)

The Gulf View Park was active with horse racing as the steeds of A.M. Dulion, Felix Borries, John and William Kennedy, Bud Holliman, Joe Aiken, and Mr. Henley competed.(The Biloxi Herald, November 10, 1899, p. 8)


Prohibition began in Mississippi on January 1st.(The Daily Herald,    1909, p.    and The Sun Herald, October 2, 2011, p. A1)


Police Chief Staehling issued instructions to his patrolmen, R.M. Randolpn, Zudie Hightower, nee Julius Sablich, and Nat Bolton, to arrest proprietors of liquor joints and bootleggers.  Public and private houses were also banned of alcohol. Staehling said, "there will be no favoritiism played."  ? Hunt was arrested on Main Street with more than 300 quarts of beer and some whiskey. He was fined $50 by Police Judge Z.T. Champlin.  Sheriff J.C. Elmer related that as many as 60 blind tigers and bootleggers in the area.(The Daily Herald, July 22, 1914, p. 1)


Biloxi seafood packers complain of 'booze' joints.(The Daily Herald, January 4, 1917, p. 1)

Vester Wentzell, owner of the Gray Goose on East Beach, was arrested by Chief Randolph and Officer bellande on April 20th.  They discovered that Wentzell had seventeen half pints of whiskey in a basket on the wharf at his place of business.  Judge Elmer fined Mr. Wentzell $100 and court costs.(The Daily Herald, April 21, 1917, p. 3)


Prohibition was instituted with ratification of the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution on January 16, 1919, which prohibited the "...manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States..." Congress passed the "Volstead Act" on October 28, 1919, to enforce the law, but most large cities were uninterested in enforcing the legislation, leaving an understaffed federal service to go after bootleggers. Although alcohol consumption did decline, there was a dramatic rise in organized crime in the larger cities, which now had a cash crop that was in high demand.

In February 1917, Police Chief R.M. Randolph and Officer Peter Bellande destroyed six cases of confiscated whiskey valued at $75 by pouring the liquor into the gutter.(The Daily Herald, February 24, 1917, p. 3)



County-wide law and order mass meeting called.(The Daily Herald, April 20, 1923, p. 1)


On the eve of July 5, 1925, the Isle of Caprice resort opened for business.   Fun seeking tourists departed for the resort from landings at the Biloxi Yacht Club, White House, Riviera Pavilion, and Wachenfeld’s Pier.  The Silver Moon, commanded by Ed L. Moran (1888-1951), the brother of A.P. ‘Fred’ Moran (1897-1967) of Ocean Springs, Jolly Jack, Charles Redding, and Margaret  provided transportation.  In the new pavilion, music was made by the Buena Vista Orchestra.(The Daily Herald, July 6, 1925, p. 3)


The US Coast Guard Patrol Boat 250 seized a large cache of illegal liquor from the schooner Wanderer about 70 miles south of NOLA on the Mississippi River.  510 sacks of assorted liquors, 90 cases of Gordon's gin, and 110 gallons of alcohol were taken from the vessel.(The Daily Herald, August 26, 1926, p. 1)

Deputy Sheriffs destroyed five slot machines at Biloxi operating in the D'Aquin Drugstore, Palace poolroom, Oasis Soft Drink Stand, and the Hamburger King.  Judge George H. Murphy assessed fines of $25 and declared that "slot macines in Harrison County must go".(The Daily Herald, February 18, 1928, p. 1 and February 21, 1928, p. 1)
The Mercedes Williams, a Biloxi launch, was captured near Galveston, Texas in April 1930 by the USCG and charged with engaging in illicit trade and failing to heave to when challenged after 14 shots were fired.  The vessel was built Biloxi by Ed Lebatard and was licensed at Gulfport in September 1928 in the name of DeJean Packing Company.  The Mercedes Williams was found stranded on a reef in Galveston Bay circa 1929 with liquor valued at $75,000 in her hold.  The vessel was sold by the Federal government on December 23, 1929.(The Daily Herald, april 21, 1930, p. 2)
US Coast Guard 301, a  patrol boat from the Biloxi base, seized the Freda, an auxulliary schooner owned by the Bernard Taltavull of the Biloxi Canning Company, off Pass Christian in late January.  The boat had a cargo of contraband liquor valued at more than $60,000.  Arrested were: Captain Robert McDonald and Benny Frenefi of Pass Christian; Roy Sconyern of Hugo, Oklahoma; Albert Boudreaux, Martin Ross and James Freche of Biloxi; Henry Latimer, Gulfport; and Arthur Birou of NOLA.  The vessel had alleged been on an oystering trip to the Pass Christian reefs.  The US Coast Guard had recently captured Alena, a rum lugger of NOLA with 900 cases of alcohol and liquer and Grant R. Kidston aboard Melvina seized the Blanche? Marie with 1600 sacks of liquor.(The Daily Herald, January 28, 1932, p. 1)
Prohibition became increasingly unpopular during the Great Depression, as the repeal movement, led by conservative Democrats and Catholics, emphasized that repeal would generate enormous sums of much needed tax revenue, and weaken the base of organized crime. The Repeal of Prohibition in the United States was accomplished with the passage of the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution on December 5, 1933. By its terms, states were allowed to set their own laws for the control of alcohol. The organized Prohibition movement was dead nationwide, but survived for a while in a few southern and border states


Raids on slot machine operators in early May netted Biloxi citizens over $700 in fines.  Among the largest fine payers were: Martin's Beer Parlor-$37.50; Union Beer Parlor-$30; Palace Cafe-$27.50; Joe Randazzo-$17.50; Martino's Smoker-$15.00; and the Hamburger King-$15.00(The Daily Herald, May 9, 1935, p. 1 and May 10, 1935, p. 5)

City raids on slot machines netted the Biloxi treasury $837.50 as City Judge G.B. Cousins fined a large number of businessmen for operating slots on their premises.(The Daily Herald, July 18, 1935, p. 2)


Governor Hugh White outlaws slot and pinball machinees in Mississippi effected March 25th.(The Daily Herald, February 26, 1938, p. 1)


Slot machines not to be taxed by Mississippi because they are illegal.(The Daily Herald, April 16, 1940, p. 1)

Claude V. Bilbo, Jackson County, Ms. State Representative proposed that Mississippi legalize the sale of alcohol. It was estimated that $3,200,000 in tax revenues could be collected during the next biennium if the measure passed.(The Daily Herald, April 22, 1940, p. 1) 


In mid-June 1941, Sheriff Raliegh C. Edwins (1897-1960) and twelve deputies seized a large quantity of bonded whiskey and high volume alcoholic wine from an unidentified location on East Howard Avenue in Biloxi. Grover Graham Sr. (1893-1964) was arrested in the raid which also uncovered slot machines, dice tables, and poker chips.  It appeared that gambling was in progress at the time of the break-in as money and other evidence were found on the premises.(The Daily Herald, June 16, 1941, p. 1)

In late June 1941 at Biloxi's Justice Court, Peter Martin, proprietor of the Broadwater Beach Hotel, was fined $75 for possession of a dice table, roulette wheel and faro layout and $150 for having six slot machines.  Tony Fallo of the Plaza Club was fined $50 for operating a dice table and roulette wheel.  Mike Emile of the Plaza Club was fined $225 for operating nine slot machines.(The Daily Herald, June 25, 1941, p. 3)



The Biloxi Protestant Pastors Association endorsed a resolution to petition the Mayor and city officials of Biloxi to enforce laws within the city in reference to slot machines and liquor.(The Daily Herald, October 5, 1943, p. 1)


The Embassy Club, formerly the Henry Piaggio (1874-1921) home at Gulfport, was acquired by Anthony Ingassia Jr., John L. Cox, and James F. Porter of Gulfport and renamed the Merry Mansion.  They planned to open in June.(The Daily Herald, May 25, 1945, p. 9)

Joseph Mattina and Joseph Ewing of the Biloxi Police seized 30 slot machines after R. Hart Chinn signed an affidavit against the owners and managers of venues with gambling devices.  Among them were: Park Hotel Bar; Cottage Inn; Marietta Cafe; Avelez Hotel; Sports Center; and the Brass Rail.(The Daily Herald, June 9, 1945, p. 3)    

In August, Luther Maples (1890-1971), District Attorney, ordered slot machines be removed from commercial premises.  By late September, the gaming machines were coming back to their former haunts.  Slot machines were still rare to find in local grocery stores and restaurants.(The Daily Herald, September 21, 1945, p. 5)


Slot machines began to disappear in Biloxi as Judge Norman Quave renewed his demand for their exit from the city.  He had strong support from the Biloxi Protestant Ministerial Association headed by Reverend Douglass Carroll of the 1st Assembly of God; Reverend G.C. Hodge, 1st Baptist Church of Biloxi; and Reverend Maynard Miller, 1st Presbyterian Church of Biloxi.  Stephen L. Guice, attorney, represented the Protestant church leadership.(The Daily Herald, January 9, 1950, p. 1 and March 30, 1950, p. 1)


Two Biloxi ministers, the Reverend Douglass Carroll of the Central Assembly of God and the Reverend Thomas Albert Carruth of the 1st Methodist Church testified before the Kefauver Crime Commission at NOLA in late January 1951 that slot machines were so pervasive at Biloxi that for each thirty-five residents there was one slot machine!  They also related that Black Jack, dice, and other gamblig activities were flourishing.  The ministers also said that the average age of soldiers at Keesler Field is nineteen, an age at which they have not matured to avoid places of iniquity.(The Times-Picayune, January 27, 1951, p. 8)

Senator Lester C. Hunt (1892-1954) (D-Wyo) precided over a Senate Armed Services committee hearing held at Biloxi on October 22nd.  The Senate  investgators were researching gambling and its effects in the vicinity of military bases.  Biloxians and others who were subpoenaed and called to testify before the committee were: Mayor R. Hart Chinn; A.J. Creel, City Commissioner; Earl F. Wetzel, police chief; Louis Rosetti, police captain; Laz Quave, Sheriff; Luther Maples, District Attorney; Major General James F. Powell, commander Keesler Field; C.P. GalleGriffin McEachern and Pete Leonetti, pinball machine operators; John Bertucci; E.C. Tonsmeire, bank president; Val C. Redding, manager of the Greyhound Bus Station; Major Charles R. Alexander, Air Police; and J.P. Coleman, D.A. State of Mississippi.  Mayor R. Hart Chinn and Sheriff Laz Quave testified that they intended to enforce Mississippi's anti-gambling laws and remove all slot machines indefinitely.(The Times-Picayune, October 19, 1951, p. 1 and October 23, 1951, p. 1)

Major General James F. Powell announced that Coast gambling was off limits to KAFB personnel.(The Gulf Coast Times, December 6, 1951, p. 1)


In early March, a delegation consisting of Senator Howard McDonnell, Ernest Desporte, Albert Sidney Johnson, William Dukate, Frank P. Corso, Daniel Guice, Lynden Bowring, and William E. Beasley went before State Legislators to advocate and lobby for the 'local option liquor bill'.(The Daily Herald, March 6, 1952, p. 1)

42 Slot machines seized last winter were ordered destroyed by Deputy US Marshall J.W. Daniels Jr. The machines were wasted at the I. Shemper Company junk yard on Back Bay.  Slot machines were valued between $250 and $350.(The Daily Herald, June 25, 1952, p. 1)



Broadwater Beach Hotel forced to cease gaming on premises by Hancock Bank.  Seaview Inc. owned the resort at this time.(The Daily Herald, February 19, 1954, p. 1)


The Times-Picayune, “Guardsmen hit Coast taverns”, January 1, 1955.





In December, eleven business establishments in Harrison County alleged to harbor gaming paraphernalia were recognized and action to close them was sought by Joe T. Patterson, Attorney General.  These businesses were believed to be the running such illicit activities as dice tables, roulette wheels, Black Jack tables, and slot machines:Friendship House of J.E. Meyers, Mary Meyers, and Jack Dennis; Fiesta Club, Trader John’sSea N’ Sirloin Restaurant, and the Cabana Beach Motel of Jake Mladinich Sr., Jake Mladinich Jr. and John Mladinich; Gay Paree of Guy Uchell, Sam Uchell et al; Chez Joey of Ronnie Eleuterius and Mike Illich [possibly Gillich?]; Bennie French’s at Henderson Point on US Highway 90 of Bennie French Sr.; Shangri-La of Hershel Dyer on US Highway 90; Ace of Clubs of Jewel Garriga, Mrs. Ace Garriga;  Key Club of John Romeo on US Highway 90 West; Eight Day Lounge of Richard Head on Pat Harrison Avenue; Beverly Lounge of Charles Conway on Old Highway 49, North Gulfport; Hi-Hat Club of George Andrews.(The Daily Herald, December 1, 1961, Section III, p. 21)


In mid-June, Governor Ross R. Barnett (1898-1987) authorized a raid by the Mississippi National Guard, commanded by William P. Wilson, State Adjutant General, on three Biloxi night spots on West Beach: The Gay Paree-owned and operated by Bernard A. Blaize (b. 1911); The Key Club-owned by John Romeo (1931-2011).  Romeo and Jack N.S. Dennis (b. 1901), a patron, also arrested; and The Spot-James L. Porter (b. 1902), owner. Mr. Porter pleaded guilty to possession of gambling equipment and intoxicating liquor. He was fined $138, but $7500 of his gambling devices and paraphernalia were destroyed and $3000 of liquor.  Roger K. D' Angelo (1931-1999), an employee, was also arrested.  The National Guard raiders consisted of three teams of six men each. They destroyed dice tables, roulette wheels, Blackjack and Poker games, slot machines, and liquor valued at $25,000.  Harrison County Sheriff Curtis O. Dedeaux stated that this action was taken by Governor Barnett for the publicity.(The Daily Herald, June 14, 1962, p. 1, June 15, 1962, p. 1, and November 6, 1962, p. 1)


IRS agents destroyed fifteen pinball machines that had been confiscated on April 4, 1963.  The machines were valued at $10,000.  Special Agent John E. Montgomery related that these were some of the forty-eight machines that had been confiscated because the owners fail to pay annual federal tax of $250 per machine.  Of the fifteen pin ball machines that were smashed and burned, three were tken from the Pink Poodle owned by J.J. Viator Jr.; six came from Sooky's lounge owned by Sebastian A. 'Sooky' Acevedo (1915-1988); one came from Kandy News and the property of United Novelty. five were taken from the Archery Arcade owned by A.J. Lund.  The remainder of the pinball machines came from Cecil's Restaurant; Airmen News; Mickey's Billiard Center; Greyhound Bus Station; Geno's Cafe; Star News and Tobacco; Joe's Elbow Room; and Roy's News and Tobacco Store.  The IRS estimated that there were between 500 and 1000 pinball machines in Harrison County.(The Daily Herald, November 2, 1963, p. 14) 


The Red Carpet, a casino-style, gambling venue situated in a former residence on the north side of US Highway No. 90 on Biloxi's West Beach 'Strip', was declared "off-limits" for military personnel. Buddy's Ranch House on Pass Road and the B&B Blue Room were included in the order.(The Daily Herald, December 9, 1964, p. 1)


In late October, Joseph Asa Garriga (1903-1973) testified as one of seven witnesses for the prosecution in Federal Court in a case that charged Curtis O. Dedeaux, former Harrison County, Mississippi Sheriff, with accepting graft from bar operators, income tax evasion and giving false information to the IRs in the years 1960-1962. Joseph Asa Garriga stated that he and his brother, Edward Garriga, had opened the Silver Dollar Lounge in December 1959 and that he ran a bar and brothel until 1962 when he was convicted of the breaking the White Slavery Traffice law and sentenced to the penitentiary.  Garriga alleged that Sheriff Dedeaux had taken 'protection' money from him to operate slot machines, prostitution, and illegal alcohol, etc.(The Daily Herald, October 27, 1965, p. 1 and p. 30)


Prohibition was abolished in Mississippi, the last State in the Union to formally finalize this punitive law prohibing the sale of alcohol and other spiritous beverages.


On December 16, 1967, Harry Bennett (1902-1967), Biloxi gambler and bookmaker, was murdered gang land style outside of his apartment.  Harold Donald Diddlemeyer (1943-2007) , an escapee from the Mississippi State Penetentiary, was accused of his murder and in 1969 asked the court to take a lie detector test to prove his innocence of this crime.(The Daily Herald, December 16, 1967. p. 1 and April 1, 1969, p. 2)


Crooked dice sent to Harrison County.(The Daily Herald, March 5, 1969. p. 1)

Government rests case in gambling trial against Marvin T. Stark (1911-1984) and Norwood Hedge (1906-1999).(The Daily Herald, March 6, 1969, p. 1)


The Times-Picayune, “Biloxi strip clubs’ licenses are withheld”,August 2, 1973.


Biloxi police raided three night clubs on March 1st and arrested 18 persons on 45 counts of B-drinking.  Lester Thompson, Police Chief, related that the raids were held after the Mississippi Alcohol Beverage Commission disclosed that their State Crime Lab had determined that the Dream Room, Golden Nugget and the Show Club were selling alcoholic beverages.  The Show Club had lost its beer license last year during a campaign against the alleged B-drinking establishments.(The Daily Herald, March 3, 1975, p. A2)




The Europa Star, a gaming vessel, operated in Federal waters, and was moored at Biloxi in the late 1980s at the Point Cadet Marina.

[image by Ray L. Bellande]

The Europa Star, a 167-foot cruise ship that features dining, entertainment and gambling commenced operating from the Point Cadet Marina on December 20th under protection of a court order.(The Sun Herald, November 14, 1987, p. 1 and February 20, 1988, p.  3)


In February, Noel J. "Jimmy" Skrmetta (1936-2004) announced plans to operate a gaming vessel in Federal waters from his Pier Seafood Restaurant on Biloxi's waterfront opposite the Buena Vista Hotel.  The LA Cruise began gaming cruises from his wharf later.(The Sun Herald, February 20, 1988, p. 3)


State of Mississippi passed The Mississippi Gaming Control Act of 1990 setting the stage for riverboat casino gaming.  On March 4, 1990, the LA Cruise of Dewayne Williams, moored at Biloxi, and the Southern Elegance, based in Gulfport, were allowed to sail into international waters to gamble and serve alcohol.(The Sun Herald, March 3, 1990, p. A1)

Floating casino bill passes in Mississippi legislatures.(The Sun Herald, March 18, 1990, p. A1)

The Harrison County Board of Supervisors accepted a petition of 2036 registered voters to allow dockside gaming in Harrison County.  An election date of December 4, 1990 was tentatively set.(The Sun Herald, October 17, 1990, p. A1)




The L.A. Cruise Gaming Vessel

On July 1st, South Sea Cruises, Inc., H. Dwayne Williams, president, acquired a 40-year, water-bottom lease from the State of Mississippi, south of the Buena Vista Hotel.(Harrison Co., Mississippi 2nd JD Chancery Court Land Deed Bk. 244, p. 549)  see also Buena Vista and J. Puckett & Company to South Sea Cruises, Inc. (Harrison Co., Mississippi 2nd JD Chancery Court Land Deed Bk. 244, p. 112 and Bk. 225, p. 178)   

Dwayne Williams, owner of the LA Cruise, gambling ship in Biloxi, aspired to place the first riverboat casino in Natchez, Mississippi.  The Adams-Natchez Riverboat Company published its intent to apply for a State gaming license last week.(The Sun Herald, July 28, 1991, p. B-1)


The Biloxi Belle Casino, owned by Mississippi Riverboat Amusement Corporation, announced plans for a dockside gaming vessel at Biloxi to open in late summer of early fall.  Operators touted that the enterprise would create 700 new jobs with a yearly payroll of $13 million.(The Sub Herald, May 19, 1992, p. A1)

Mavar Inc. situated at 1140 Beach Boulevard in Biloxi leased their land in Block 1 of the Summerville Addition Subdivision to Grand Casino of Mississippi Inc., a Minnesota Corporation, located at Plymouth, Minnesota.  The 99-year lease began in June 1992.(Harrison Co., Mississippi 2nd JD Land deed Bk. 251, p. 588)

On August 1st, dockside gambling commenced at Biloxi when two riverboat casinos from Iowa, the Diamond Lady and the Emerald Lady, opened for business as The Isle of Capri Casino.(The Biloxi-d’Iberville Press, July 22, 1992, p. 1 and The Sun Herald, July 29, 2007, p. G1)


In January, the Mississippi Secretary of State signed a 15 year lease commencing August 1, 1993 and ending July 31, 2008 with Grand Casino of Mississippi.  The annual rental for the 222,475 square-feet of water bottoms was $405,000.(Harrison Co., Mississippi 2nd JD Land Deed Bk. 251, p. 616)

Casino Gambling in America: Origins, Trends, and Impacts was published by Cognizant Communication Corporation: New York.  It was edited by  Klaus J. Meyer-Arndt and Rudi Hartman of Mississippi State University and the University of Colorado respectively.
The Beau Rivage Casino opened at Midnight on March 15, 1999.(The Sun Herald, March 15, 1999, p. A1)
On October 14th, Beau Rivage Resorts, Inc. acquired the 1st Baptist Church of Biloxi sanctuary and lot on West Howard Avenue.  T.C. Waller was chairman of the 1st Baptist Church deacons at this time.(Harrison Co., Mississippi Chancery Court 2nd JD Land Deed Bk. 347, p. 6)



Ralph L. Engelstad (1930-2002)

[from The Daily Herald, January 3, 1999, p. C7]

Ralph L. Engelstad (1930-2002) expired at his Las Vegas home on November 26, 2002 after batting lung cancer.  He was born January 28, 1930 and reared in Thief River Falls, Minnesota.  Ralph graduated from the University of North Dakota in 1954, where he was a talented hockey goalie. Engelstad moved to Las Vegas in 1959, using the profits from his construction company and real estate investments to buy a Strip motel on the site of what is now the Imperial Palace.  Engelstad built and opened the new property in 1979, and the property now has 2,700 hotel rooms and 2,600 employees, the second-largest sole proprietorship hotel in the world.  Engelstad opened an Imperial Palace resort in Biloxi, Mississippi in 1997, and, along with Sahara owner Bill Bennett, developed and sold the Las Vegas Motor Speedway.  Mr. Engelstad was highly regarded as both a generous philanthropist and lightning rod for controversy.  A local resident of Las Vegas since 1959, he earned numerous awards for giving millions of dollars to various charitable causes. However, his alleged interest in Nazi memorabilia and support of an athletic program whose name some deemed offensive to American Indians helped make Engelstad infamous as well.  Following a 20-month battle with lung cancer, gaming executive Ralph Engelstad died November 26, 2002 at his Las Vegas home.(The Las Vegas Review-Journal, November 28, 2002, p. 1A and December 4, 2002)


Hard Rock Casino began construction in 2004.

Hurricane Katrina hit the Mississippi Gulf Coast on August 30, 2005.


Hard Rock Casino reopened in July.




Margaritaville Casino and Restaurant-Jimmy Buffet and Tom Brosig put their ‘Margaritaville Casino’ on fast track.  Meeting with Biloxi Planning Commission, City Council and Mississippi Gaming Commission planned for February.(The Sun Herald, January 6, 2011, p. A1 and January 13, 2011, p. A1)

 Planning Commission unanimously votes in favor of Margaritaville casino.(The Sun Herald February 4,2011  P.6A)

The $53 million Palace Casino expansion was dedicated on November 11th with Mayor A.J. Holloway cutting the ceremonial ribbon.  Keith Crosby is the general manager of the casino.(The Sun Herald, November 12, 2011, p. C6)


Hard Rock Casino announced in mid-January that it may build a 12-story addition to their hotel tower.  The addition would add 154 hotel rooms.  Construction started in late October on the 12-story, $32.5 million hotel with a completion planned for December 31, 2013.(The Sun Herald, January 19, 2012, p. A2 and October 24, 2012, p. B6)

The week of March 5th brought exciting casino industry news to the Mississippi Coast as Golden Nugget announced that they were acquiring the Isle Casino Biloxi.  Margaritaville Casino  held a job fair that attracted about 2000  individuals hoping for the 1000 positions that they were seeking to fill before their May 2012 grand opening. The CanCan Casino, later known as Land Holdings I LLC, was promised by the City of D'Iberville that $24M in tax increment bonds would be issued for infrastruture to assit their locating on Biloxi's Bay Bay.  In addition, Rotate Black officals announced a new casino for Gulfport.(The Sun Herald, March 11, 2012 p. A1)

In early April, Full House Resorts announced that it would buy the Silver Slipper Casino in Hancock County, Mississippi for $70M.(The Sun Herald, April 4, 2012, p. B6)
In April, the Mississippi Satte legislature approved the sale of beer with an alcohol content of 8 % by weight. Governor Phil Bryant signed the measure which went into effect on July 1, 2012.(The Sun Herald, April 10, 2012)
The Mississippi Gaming Commission on September 20th approved the sale of the Silver Slipper Casino in Hancock County to Full House Resorts.(The Sun Herald, September 21, 2012, p. A5)
On June 21st, the Golden Nugget Casino, formerly the Isle Casino and Isle of Capri Casino, celebrated its Grand Opening of the completion of its $100 million dollar first improvement stage.(The Sun Herald, June 16, 2013, p. A1 and June 22, 2013, p. A1)
Casino Magicproperty being cleaned. Caesars Entertainment has dropped its lease on the Casino Magic property and crews are cleaning out the tower. Tyrone Gollott, one of the owners of the property, said they hope to lease it for a hotel or possibly sell it.(The Sun Herald July 24,2013  P.5A)
Casino Magic, owned by Caesars Entertainment, dropped its lease on the Casino Magic property on Point Cadet.  A local contractor was issured a permit to basically gut the building. Owners [Gollott family] hopes lease the property for a hotel or sell it.(The Sun Herald, July 24, 2013, p. A5)
Silver Slipper, the first land based casino built in south Mississippi seven years ago in November 2006, announced that it is planning to erect a 140-room hotel to cost $17.5 million dollars.  Acquired by Full House Resorts in October 2012.(The Sun Herald, August 9, 2013, p. A1)
New rules deadline spurring casino action. Requirements for size, amenities begin January 1, 2014.   Regulations starting Jan 1 will require new casinos to have: At least 300 hotel rooms, with a three-star rating; a 40,000 square-foot or larger casino; a restaurant that can seat 200 people; a fine dining restaurant with seating for 75 people; parking for 500 cars.  The Mississippi Gaming Commission can relax some of these regulations if the developer builds superior amenities or supports an amenity in the community.(The Sun Herald September 8,2013  P.A1)
New Hard Rock Casino Biloxihotel reaches new heights.  New 12 story hotel tower will expand the resort by 154 rooms, 14 of them luxury suites - for a total of 479 rooms.(The Sun Herald September 27,2013  P.6D)
The developers of Oyster Bay Casino say they will renew lease for Fountain Beach , city-owned Back Bay land.  (The Sun Herald October 4,2013  P.2A)
“Casino [Scarlet Pearl] misses deadline”,(The Sun Herald,  April 1, 2014, p. A-1)
Rotate Black Casino misses its deadline. (The Sun Herald, April 2, 2014, p. A-1)
Rotate Black wants 20-day extension to complete financing and pay creditors to build Hemingway Resort and Casino.(The Sun Herald April 3,2014  P.1A)
Warner Gaming and Hospitality selected to head management team for the $200 million Biloxi Board Walk Casino.(The Sun Herald, March  2014 and April 2, 2014, p. A-3)
Diamondhead Casino gets new chairman of the board, Ted Arneault former MTR Gaming Group Chairman. He will replace long-time Diamondhead Casino chairman Deborah Vitale, who is stepping down.(The Sun Herald April 3,2014  P.1A)




The Sun Herald, "Ships' new house rules; Gamble first, drink later", March 3, 1990, p. A1.The Sun Herald, "Are they barges or buildings", June 27, 1999, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Top ten largest jackpots”, August 7, 2011, p. A1.


The Sun Herald, “Casinos raise questions on offshore drilling”, February 10, 2012, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Harbor Town Casino up for approval”, April 19, 2012, P. a1.

The Sun Herald, “Gaming panel says bring back bigger plan for [Harbor Town and Rotate Black] for casino”, April 20, 2012, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Editorial-Gulfport Harbor deserves a casino worthy of location”, April 22, 2012, p. C2.

The Sun Herald, “Caesars writes off unfinished casino”, May 3, 2012, p. B6.

The Sun Herald, "Casino [Rotate Black] could be back on the table today", August 16, 2012, p. A5.

The Sun Herald, “An end to Coast's 'lawless atmosphere'”, September 16, 2012, p. A1.



The Sun Herald, “New casinos should grow, not dilute market”, January 27, 2013, p. B8.

The Sun Herald, “Rotate Black misses deadline on casino”, April 23, 2013, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Casino Magic property being cleaned”, July 24, 2013. p. A5.

The Sun Herald, “Silver Slipper Casino hotel on the way", August 9, 2013. p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Island View expanding to beach”, August 15, 2013, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, "Judge dismisses $75 million dollar casino lawsuit [alcohol poisoning alleged at IP Casino]", August 15, 2013, p. A-1)
The Sun Herald, “Island View doubles down with move across U.S. 90 [Sun Herald editorial opinion]”, August 16, 2013, p. C2.

The Sun Herald, “Casinos ready to expand with road extension in East Biloxi”, August 21, 2013, p. A-1.

The Sun Herald, “”,


The Sun Herald, “Coast casinos raising the stakes with new hotels, amenities”, January 2, 2014, p. A-1.

The Sun Herald, “Back Bay casino appeal dismissed”, February 27, 2014, p. A-11.

The Sun Herald, “Biloxi Casinos adding green space, parking”, March 20, 2014, p. A-11.

The Sun Herald, “Casino [Scarlet Pearl] misses deadline”, April 1, 2014, p. A-1.

The Sun Herald, “Gulfport will seek new developer for harbor casino”, April 2, 2014, p. A-1.

The Sun Herald, “”,











The Sun Herald, “Beau Rivage traffic will be burdonsome; police say”, March 14, 1999, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “A little Vegas for the South”, March 14, 1999, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Beau Rivage opens in style”, March 15, 1999, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Beau Rivage blends intimacy, commotion”, March 15, 1999, p. A6

The Sun Herald, “Beau Rivage courts VIPs”, March 16, 1999, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Making cultural history or just another casino”, March 17, 1999, p. A-6.

The Sun Herald, “Beau Rivage hires veterans through Boots to Business”, September 6, 2013, p. A-2.

The Sun Herald, “”,

The Sun Herald, “”,

The Sun Herald, “Lines around the block [15th anniversary]”, March 20, 2014, p. A-1.

The Sun Herald, “”,




BILOXI BELLE-Central Beach 

[Katrina damaged image by Ray L. Bellande made August 1993.  Original at BPL Archives]

The Biloxi Belle Casino, owned by Mississippi Riverboat Amusement Corporation, announced plans for a dockside gaming vessel at Biloxi to open in late summer of early fall.  Operators touted that the enterprise would create 700 new jobs with a yearly payroll of $13 million.(The Sub Herald, May 19, 1992, p. A1)

The Biloxi Belle Casino planned to build 800 parking spaces on the 5.5 acre site of the former Buena Vista Hotel.(The Sun Herald, October 27, 1993, p. D-5)






The Sun Herald, “Last days of the Buena Vista”, October 27, 1993.


The Sun Herald, “”,






The Sun Herald, ""

The Sun Herald, "Biloxi Boardwalk Casino, other development moving forward", April 2, 2014, p. A-3.

The Sun Herald, ""


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Land Holdings I, LLC, formerly CANCAN CASINO




The Sun Herald, “”,

The Sun Herald, “Council OKs up to $24M for CanCan costs”, March 7, 2012, p. A11.

The Sun Herald, “Long-awaited casino nears for D'Iberville”, March 15, 2012, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “What happened to mingling the new casino with D'Iberville's French Market”, March 25, 2012, p. B3.







Mavar Inc. situated at 1140 Beach Boulevard in Biloxi leased their land in Block 1 of the Summerville Addition Subdivision to Grand Casino of Mississippi Inc., a Minnesota Corporation, located at Plymouth, Minnesota.  The 99-year lease began in June 1992.(Harrison Co., Mississippi 2nd JD Land deed Bk. 251, p. 588)

In January, the Mississippi Secretary of State signed a 15 year lease commencing August 1, 1993 and ending July 31, 2008 with Grand Casino of Mississippi.  The annual rental for the 222,475 square-feet of water bottoms was $405,000.(Harrison Co., Mississippi 2nd JD Land Deed Bk. 251, p. 616)





March-April 2014



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Roy Anderson III, whose company twice built the Hard Rock Hotel & Casino, transferred his stock in the casino.(The Sun Herald, March 26, 2013, p. A9)




The Sun Herald,

The Sun Herald, "Hard Rock stock changes hand", March 26, 2013.


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The Sun Herald, “”,

The Sun Herald, “Hard Rock may expand”, January 19, 2012, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “”,




Gaming Era

In August 1992, when the Isle of Capri opened for business on Point Cadet, dockside gaming proved an immediate success.  Other casino operators became interested in commencing operations on the Biloxi peninsula.  The old Biloxi Canning Company site was zoned for gaming by the Biloxi City Council on February 22, 1993, when the entire Back Bay area, composing Waterfront District II, was zoned.           

Imperial Palace-Ralph Englestad

In March 1993, Peoples Bank of Biloxi conveyed to the Mississippi Gaming Corporation, a Delaware corporation, a 1.839 tract northwest of the old canning company tract.(HARCO, Ms. Land Deed Bk. 53, p. 378-379)  This was the beginning of land acquisition by a group to be called Imperial Palace of Mississippi.

Mississippi Gaming Corporation to Ralph Engelstad.(HARCO, Ms. Land Deed Bk. 270, p. 692).(1.839 acres m/l).

Morris J. Smith to Ralph Englestad.(HARCO, Ms. Land Deed Bk. 272, p. 51)-described as 98.5 feet x 197 feet.(see also HARCO, Ms. Land Deed Bk. 272, p. 106)

Durward Dunn sold the old Biloxi Canning Company site to Imperial Palace of Mississippi, Inc. on October 27, 1994.(HARCO, Ms. Land Deed Bk. 277, pp. 213-214).

Demolition and site construction

In 1994, after the removal of the remaining structures of the Biloxi Canning Company, construction began slowly on the site.  The General Contractor was           

The casino barge

The Imperial Palace Casino barge, a three-story structure, arrived at Biloxi on August 19, 1995, from Morgan City, Louisiana.  Construction was completed at a site near the head of Oak Street and moved to casino site in 1996.  The Imperial Palace Casino opened for business on December 30, 1997.(The Biloxi-D’Iberville Press, February 25, 1998, p. 7)

The hotel

The Imperial Palace Hotel construction commenced in early 1996.  Completion was planned for July 1997, but didn’t open for business until February 6, 1998.(The Biloxi-D’Iberville Press, February 25, 1998)

(see Englestad v. Mayor Holloway controversies over upper stories of hotel)



The Biloxi-D'Iberville Press, "Imperial Palace set opening July 1st", December 11, 1996, p. 1.

The Biloxi-D'Iberville Press, "Imperial Palace Biloxi Hotel opened", February 25, 1998. 

The Sun Herald, "Casinos on the way to Back Bay", February 23, 1993, p. 1.

The Sun Herald, “Imperial Palace chief all business”, December 14, 1997.

The Sun Herald, "", June, 2011, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Boyd Gaming, IP execs meet”, Junne 18, 2011, p. A4.

The Sun Herald, “Another high-quality marquee name has been added to Coast gaming”, June 19, 2011, p. B8.

The Sun Herald, “IP Casino now a Boyd gaming property”, October 4, 2011, p. A1.

 The Sun Herald, “IP Casino wins award for philanthropy”, November 4, 2011, p. A2.




The Isle-Golden Nugget  during its makeover and renovation.[image made mid-June 2013]
On June 21st, the Golden Nugget Casino, formerly the Isle and Isle of Capri, celebrated its Grand Opening of the completion of its $100 million dollar first improvement stage.(The Sun Herald, June 22, 2013, p. A1)


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The Sun Herald, “”, , 20.
The Sun Herald, “Golden Nugget plans $150 M renovation of Isle”, March 6, 2012.
The Sun Herald, “Golden Nugget will celebrate grand opening Friday”, June 16, 2013, p. A-1.
The Sun Herald, “Casino history still being made”, June 21, 2013, p. C-2.
The Sun Herald, “Party opens Golden Nugget”, June 22, 2013, p. A-1.
The Sun Herald, “Phase Two brings fun to Casino”, September 6, 2013, p. D-8.
The Sun Herald, “”, , 2013.






The Sun Herald, "Proposed casino causes furor", January 10, 1993, p. C1.

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The Sun Herald, “”,

The Sun Herald, “”,

The Sun Herald, “”,







                     Margaritaville Casino construction [L-R: mage made June 20, 2011 and October 24, 2011]                                                                  


                            Margaritaville Casino construction [L-R: all images made December 1, 2011]  


                         December 17, 2011                                          March 1, 2012                     Road into Casino-March 12, 2012



The Margaritaville Casino and Restaurant is located on Point Cadet and the Bay of Biloxi in Block 21 and Block 25 of the Summerville Subdivision.  In November 2006, T Mothers Development Companines, LLC, a Mississippi Limited Liability Company acquired 4.46 acres in parts of Block 21 and Block 25-Summerville Subdivision from Ershigs, Inc.   for $2.7 million. Ershigs, Inc. is located in Pawnee County, Oklahoma.

Margaritaville Casino and Restaurant

Jimmy Buffet and Tom Brosig put their ‘Margaritaville Casino’ on fast track.  Meeting with Biloxi Planning Commission, City Council and Mississippi Gaming Commission planned for February.(The Sun Herald, January 6, 2011, p. A1 and January 13, 2011, p. A1)           


The Biloxi City Council approved the Margaritaville Casino and Restaurant at its meeting in mid-February.  Casino representative Michael Cavanaugh, local attorney, related that Margaritaville planned a New Year’s Eve 2011 opening.  The next step before construction could commence was approval by the State gaming commission which was slated for April 7, 2011.(The Sun Herald, February 15, 2011 and March  31,  2011)

At Biloxi on April 7, 2011, the Mississippi Gaming Commission approved a gaming license for Margaritaville Casino and Restaurant.  Phase I of the project will consist of a 20,000 square-foot casino, a Margaritaville Restaurant and lounge, a store, events center, and marina.  The Roy Anderson Corporation will begin soil testing at the construction site off 5th Street on Point Cadet in mid-April.(The Sun Herald, April 8, 2011, p. A1 and April 9, 2011, p. A1)

                                                                   Magaritaville Casino and Restaurant [September 24, 2011]


The Biloxi-D'Iberville Press, "", .

The Biloxi-D'Iberville Press, "", . 

Gulf Coast Business, "Shark sighting", September 2011.

The Sun Herald, “Biloxi Casino project on fast track”, January 6, 2011.

The Sun Herald, “New Margaritaville in the works”, January 13, 2011.

The Sun Herald, “Biloxi Council OK’s Margaritaville plans”, February 15, 2011.

The Sun Herald, “Margaritaville goes to gaming commission on April 7”, March 31, 2011.

The Sun Herald, “Margaritaville could be back on fast track”, April 1, 2011, p. A6.

The Sun Herald, “Buffett cruises on back home”, April 8, 2011, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Street to Margaritaville”, June 22, 2011, p. B8.

The Sun Herald"Road to Margaritaville needed opening day", September 21, 2011, p. A12.

The Sun Herald"Margaritaville's first party a 'topping out", , 2012, p. A10.

The Sun Herald, at the casino-Margartitaville to open in May, January 24, 2012.

 The Sun Herald, at the casino-Margartitaville Biloxi names department directors, Januar 24, 2012.

The Sun Herald, “Margaritaville GM in magazine's 25 to watch”, February 1, 2012.

The Sun Herald, “Margaritaville Casino ready to hire 1,000”, March 1, 2012, p. B1.

The Sun Herald, “Looking for jobs in Margaritaville”, March 6, 2012, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Nearl 1.500 apply for Margaritaville jobs”, March 13, 2012, p. A11.

The Sun Herald, “Margaritaville Casino closing in on ribbon-cutting”, May 3, 2012, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “Casino's 'Biloxi Beauty' still in hospital”, August14, 2012, p.A2.
The Sun Herald, “Casinos ready to expand with road extension in East Biloxi”, August 21, 2013, p. A1.
The Sun Herald, “”, , 2014.
The Sun Herald, “Stuck with Margaritaville's tab?”, July 29, 2014, p. A-2.








The Sun Herald, “D'Iberville to lease land for new casino”, April 4, 2012, p. A7.

The Sun Herald, “Oyster Bay Casino new design revealed”, April 6, 2012, p. D6.





[from 1st Street view north-1998]


The Palace Casino opened in January 1997.  Damaged by Katrina and reopened December 30, 2005.


2010-2011 Addition

Closed on May 31st for two weeks for upgrades and will be the first smoke-free casino in Mississippi when it reopens following the second phase of it $50 million dollar expansion on June 14th.  Three new restaurants will open directly onto casino floor and smokers may use the new $1 million smoking lounge.(The Sun Herald, June 1, 2011,  p. A1)



The Sun Herald, “Commission aiming for casinos that create jobs, expand the local market”, April 9, 2011, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Palace closes for upgrades; will soon limit smoking”, June 1, 2011.

The Sun Herald, “Palace will reopen this morning”, June 14, 2011.

The Sun Herald, ‘at the Casinos[insert]’, “Palace Casino reopens today”, June 14, 2011.

The Sun Herald, “Palace Casino reopens”, June 15, 2011.

The Sun Herald, “Palace Casino expansion nearing completion”, October 16, 2011, p. C-10.

The Sun Herald, “Mission accomplished”, November 12, 2011, p. C-6.

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The Sun Herald, “Full House Resorts to buy Silver Slipper for $70M”, April 4, 2012, p. B6.

The Sun Herald, “Silver Slipper finanacing secured”, My 3, 2012, p. B6.

The Sun Herald, “Silver Slipper Casino hotel on the way”, Augsut 9, 2013, p. A1.







Jackson County, Mississippi


100 acres situated in Section 18 T7S-R7W.

Jackson County business

The Choctaw Nation owns several businesses in Jackson County, Mississippi. 

1992 Deal

Compact between Governor Kirk Fordice and Chief Phillip Martin (1926-2010) that allows the Choctaw Nation to operate Las Vegas-style casinos on reservation lands near Philadelphia, Mississippi.  The Choctaws pay $250,000 annually to the State for promoting their Silver Star and Golden Moon Casinos.  The tribe is also exempt from a 12 percent tax on gross gaming revenues.(The Sun Herald, June 11, 2005, p. A1)

Jackson County plan

Federal process requires five steps for an Indian gaming project to come to fruition: Indian land must be placed in trust for the purposes of gaming; environmental impact study; approval of Mississippi’s Governor; Interior Department provides a legal review of the project; Bureau of Indian Affairs regional director will prepare a “finding of fact”  brief that will be submitted to the Department of Interior’s Office of Indian Gaming Management.  Chief Phillip Martin, leader and spokesman, of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians predicted that the process will take a minimum of five years.(The Sun Herald, June 19, 2006, p. A4)

Trust land conversion

On November 15, 2005, the Choctaw nation submitted an application to convert forty-acres of trust land in Jackson County, Mississippi into a casino site.  At Biloxi, the Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Nation is planning a $1.2 billion casino resort near Biloxi as a private sector operation.  Mashantucket Pequot owns Foxwoods Resort Casino at Connecticut.(The Sun Herald, September 11, 2006, p. B2)

Tribal Casino bill loses

In mid-September 2006, the U.S. House of Representatives failed to pass an initiative by the Republican Party to deny Indian tribes the right to build casinos off their reservation lands.  The vote was 247-171 to pass, but the measure failed since a two thirds majority vote was required to pass the legislation.(The Sun Herald, September 14, 2006, p. D8)

2006 Casino hearing

On October 18th, the Bureau of Indian Affairs planned to convene its first public hearing on the Mississippi Band of Choctaw proposed casino on Mississippi Highway 57.  The meeting was booked for the Civic Center in Ocean Springs, Mississippi and was the incipient action in the preparation of an environmental impact statement for the casino, hotel, and retail center planned for the site.(The Sun Herald, October 6, 2006, p. A2)

Although First American Printing and Direct Mail, a Mississippi Band of Choctaws owned business, had paid a deposit for the Civic Center in early August to reserve space for a public hearing for September 20th, a week before the rescheduled Bureau of Indian Affairs mid-October hearing, members of the Ocean Springs Board of Aldermen and John McKay, Jackson County District Five Board of Supervisor whose District the proposed Choctaw casino would open, complained that their first notice of the meeting was when they had read it in The Sun Herald.(The Sun Herald, October 13, 2006, p. A13)

Prior to the first public hearing by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Chief Phillip Martin announced that his Mississippi Band of Choctaws plan to build a $375 million casino resort in Jackson County, Mississippi.  The casino proposal would be for 2230 slot machines, 70 gaming tables, and 15 poker tables.  The hotel would have 1100 rooms.  This new announcement is exponential compared to the Choctaw’s first proposal, which was to only install bingo-based slot machines in its existing factory building on the Mississippi Highway 57 site, which is within the jurisdiction of the City of Ocean Springs.  The Mississippi Band of Choctaws own and operate the Silver Star and Golden Moon Casinos at their Philadelphia, Mississippi reservation.(The Ocean Springs Record. October 19, 2006, p. A1 and The Sun Herald, October 18, 2006, p. A1)

At the Ocean Springs Civic Center on the evening of October 18th, the proposed Jackson County Choctaw Indian casino hearing was well attended, especially by followers the Baptist Church.  The audience size was estimated at 350 people.  After opening remarks by representatives of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, environmental consultants, and the Mississippi Band of Choctaws, the remainder of the session consisted of three-minute talks from people wishing to address the casino issue from the floor.  The overwhelming consensus from the people in attendance was that casino gaming is undesirable in Jackson County, Mississippi.(The Sun Herald, October 19, 2006, p. A1 and Ray L. Bellande, an attendee)

Coast Businesses for Fair Play

In early October, the public was informed that Coast Businesses for Fair Play, a new PAC, a local political-action committee, was being formed to be antagonistic towards the proposed Jackson County Choctaw casino.  In their first public comment, Coast Businesses for Fair Play opined that the public had not been notified of the first public hearing by the Department of the Interior, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Governor’s office, which opposes the Indian casino.(The Sun Herald, October 7. 2006, p. A1)

In February 2007, Coast Businesses for Fair Play filed litigation against the U.S. Department of the Interior alleging that the Federal agency had not complied with their request for the release of public documents concerning the proposed Choctaw casino in Jackson County.  Interior through their legal representative retorted that that Coast Businesses for Fair Play has not used all of the resources available to them under the Freedom of Information Act and that the U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Mississippi has no jurisdiction in this matter.(The Sun Herald, February 16, 2007, p. A5)

Sun Herald’s editorial opinions        

On October 15, 2006 The Sun Herald’s editorial staff were very negative on the idea of The Mississippi Band of Choctaws’ proposal to open a casino resort in Jackson County.(The Sun Herald, October 15, 2006, p. B6)

In March 2007, after Mayor Connie Moran announced her conditional support of the proposed Choctaw casino on Mississippi Highway 57 at Ocean Springs, The Sun Herald opined that (see The Sun Herald, March 28, 2007, p. B4)

Biloxi Investment delays?

In late October 2006, Harrah’s Entertainment announced that it was putting a moratorium on its proposed $1 billion dollar plans for expanding its gaming operations at Biloxi.  Among the reasons cited for their suspension of activity in the Biloxi market were: high cost of construction; market volatility; and the proposed Mississippi Band of Choctaw’s casino for neighboring Jackson County.  The threat of an untaxed Indian casino with its excellent location on US Interstate 10 at Ocean Springs, which would permit it to be first gaming site to available for the lucrative Alabama-Florida trade has created an angst among casino operators to the west in Harrison and Hancock Counties.  Although Haley Barbour, Governor of Mississippi, has repeatedly announced to the public and Bureau of Indian Affairs that he opposes the Choctaw casino at Ocean Springs, Chief Phillip Martin, leader of the Mississippi Band of Choctaws, is moving forward with an environmental impact study and desires a non-binding referendum on the issue during the 2008 Presidential election.  Casino executives believe that this issue must be resolved now and that delay will curtail future investment and growth in the gaming and tourist markets along the Mississippi Gulf Coast.(The Sun Herald, October 27, 2006, p. C12)

Governor Haley Barbour

In November 2006, the Biloxi City Council passed a resolution requesting Republican Governor Haley Barbour to take “all measures within his power to oppose and prohibit”  [the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians to put a casino in Jackson County.  The Council asked the Governor to “act quickly to end this threat to the economic recovery to the Mississippi Gulf Coast.”  Governor Barber opposes the Indian casino and has notified the Bureau of Indian Affairs of his dissatisfaction.  Despite the Governor’s negative position to the Choctaw casino proposal, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has allow the Mississippi Band of Choctaws to pursue and environmental impact statement.(The Sun Herald, December 6, 2006, p. A7)

Lawyer hired

The Biloxi City Council higher Michael Cavanaugh, a Biloxi attorney, to fight the Choctaw casino project for Jackson County.  Mr. Cavanaugh will assist the Biloxi casino market which is united to oppose the aspirations of the Mississippi Band of Choctaws in neighboring Jackson County.  Cavanaugh’s remuneration, a monthly retainer, will range between $1500 and $18000.(The Sun Herald, December 6, 2006, p. A7)


Bible thumpers and casino crusaders

More opposition to the proposed Choctaw Casino at Ocean Springs surfaced on January 22, 2007, when Jackson County United for Families [JCUF], a group of pastors, and Coast Businesses for Fair Play [CBFP], an association supported by Biloxi casinos, met to discuss means to negate the Choctaw’s plans for a local casino.  In defending the meeting, the Reverend Carl King, chairman of the Jackson County United for Families, stated that his group was not an ally of CBFP, but was wagging war against the Native Americans to protect the quality of life and moral values of the community.  One result of this conference was that the religious leaders may ask the Jackson County Board of Supervisors to hold a nonbinding referendum on the public’s desire to have a casino in Jackson County at an earlier date than that proposed by the Mississippi Band of Choctaws, which was recommended for the 2008 Presidential elections.(The Sun Herald, January 23, 2007, p. A5)

A meeting of JCUF and two Jackson County Supervisors on January 31, 2007 to request that a non-binding referendum on the proposed Choctaw casino in western Jackson County be held this election year rather than 2008 resulted in the Supervisors declaring that they were unknowledgeable about this particular election process.  Shortly thereafter, the Mississippi Attorney General’s office released a statement, which related that: “a local government may conduct a non-binding referendum pursuant to its ‘home rule’ authority.”  Tishomingo County, Mississippi in 2001 held a non-binding referendum when the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians wanted to build a casino in this northeast Mississippi county.  It was defeated by local voters 55 percent to 45 percent and consequently the Jena Band of Choctaw Indians ceased their pursuit of a local casino.  (The Sun Herald, February 1, 2007, p. A. , February 2, 2007, p. A7, and February 3, 2007, p. A3)           

Vote decision

JCUF met again with the Jackson County Board of Supervisors and the County leaders decided to seek approval from the State Legislature before holding a referendum on the proposed Choctaw casino on Ms. Highway 57.  Danny Guice, R-Ocean Springs offered to introduce the proposal for legislative action on a non-binding casino vote to coincide with State and County elections to be held in November 2007.  The ministerial group had hope for a quicker decision as they believe that the anti-casino sentiment is stronger now than it will be in the future, as they believe that Chief Martin of the Mississippi Band of Choctaws will propagandize the benefits of the casino to the local populace.(The Sun Herald, February 16, 2007, p. A5 and The Ocean Springs Record, February 15, 2007, p. A1)

On February 20, 2007, the Jackson County Board of Supervisors formally submitted to the Legislature their request to have the Legislature pass local and private legislation granting the citizens of the County the right to hold a non-binding referendum on the proposed Choctaw Casino at Ocean Springs.  Supervisors expected to hear from the Legislature on the matter within two weeks.(The Sun Herald, February 21, 2007, p. A4)           

By mid-March 2007, JCUF leaders began to show frustration with the Jackson County Board of Supervisors for their slow response to the pastor’s demands for a November 2007 referendum.  The holy men felt that a November 2008 vote as suggested by Chief Phillip Martin would give the Choctaws more time to influence the outcome of the election.  Chief Martin is convinced in order for the Mississippi Band of Choctaws to have a casino in Jackson County, the local populous must approve a non-binding referendum to show the Governor and Secretary of the Interior that casino gaming is desirable in the County.(The Sun Herald, March 17, 2007, p. A15)

  Attorney General’s opinion  

On March 8, 2007, the Office of the Attorney General of Mississippi released its opinion concerning the non-binding referendum on the proposed Choctaw Casino at Jackson County.  In essence the opinion stated that the proposed vote “would be a proper subject of a non-binding referendum”, as long as the County determines the use of County funds to have the vote, “is in the County’s best interest.”   The opinion further noted that Federal Government does not ask for local approval when determining if tribal gaming is being considered.  Also the County may take private donations to underwrite an election cost and the Board of Supervisors do not have to wait until 2008 to have this election.(The Sun Herald, March 9, 2007, p. A2)

Several members of the Jackson County Board of Supervisors opined that the Attorney General’s opinion on the Choctaw Casino referendum might not be binding since the Board of Supervisors did not request it.  The request was made by Representative Danny Guice, R-Ocean Springs.  John McKay, representing Jackson County District 5 said, “An attorney general’s opinion has got to be specific to the entity requesting it.  Danny Guice got an attorney general’s opinion.  If he has an opinion and holds an election, he’s free and clear.  It won’t cost him a dime if the Choctaw’s challenge it in court.  If on the other hand, the Board of Supervisors decides to do it, we have not been given that green light.  If the Choctaws overturn it, we each are individually liable.  That’s why you have to have an attorney general’s opinion specific to you.”(The Sun Herald, March 17, 2007, p. A15)

On March 23, 2007, the Jackson County Board of Supervisors asked the Attorney General’s Office to expedite an opinion on whether the Board of Supervisors can propose a non-binding referendum on the proposed Mississippi Band of Choctaw’s casino at Ocean Springs.  The Supervisors anticipated having an answer to their request by April 2nd.(The Sun Herald, March 25, 2007, p. A2)

Political opinions

In early June, John Windsor, a Democratic Party candidate for Secretary of State for Mississippi, expressed his opposition to the Mississippi Band of Choctaws proposed casino at Ocean Springs.  He cited the favorable tax situation for the Native Americans; the expansion of inland gaming beyond the intent of the State legislature; and the negative precedent of allowing tribal casinos to be build indiscriminately in the State, as salient reasons for his opposition.(The Sun Herald, June 9, 2007, p. A6)

Choctaw elections

In early June 2007, the Mississippi Band of Choctaws held its election for a new chief.  Chief Phillip Martin (b. 1927), the incumbent who has been the Choctaw tribal leader for twenty eight years, lost the first primary to Beasley Denson (b. 1950) who campaigned for change.  Denson outpolled Chief Martin 1403 votes to 1347 votes.  Opponents to the proposed Choctaw casino in Jackson County, Mississippi fear that if Chief Martin is unseated that his promise to abide by the results of the proposed nonbinding referendum, which will poll the sentiment of the residents of Jackson County as to their desire for the Choctaw casino, will be voided by the new chief.(The Sun Herald, June 14, 2007, p. A1.)

Following the June 2007 primary election, Chief Martin accused Beasley Denson of receiving support from protagonists, the Gulf Coast casino lobby, of his proposed Jackson County casino.  A letter mailed to tribal voters was the vehicle of, Chief Martin’s allegation against Mr. Beasley.  Chief Martin further added that a Choctaw Coast casino could generate $200 million in its first five years of operation to be spent on housing, increased distribution payments, and more jobs.  Beasley Denson rejected Chief Martin’s allegation and criticized his for unilateral decision to erect the Choctaw Coast Casino, as he believed that the Mississippi Band of Choctaws should have been polled on this critical issue.  After several attempts to unseat Chief Martin as tribal leader, Mr. Denson achieved his first success in the June 2007 primary.  His success was attributed to his ‘door to door’ campaign to discover the salient issues to the voter.  The issue of a new chief for the Choctaw tribe will be settled on July 3rd.(The Sun Herald, June 21, 20007, p. A3)    

Denson wins

Early returns from the July 3rd election for Chief of the Mississippi Band of Choctaws demonstrated Beasley Denson, the challenger, leading 1528 votes to 1369 for Chief Philip Martin.  Counting of absentee ballots had Chief Martin with 94 votes and Denson with only 39.  On July 6th, Chief Martin, the incumbent, conceded the election to Beasley Denson.  Unofficial returns had Chief Martin trailing his opponent by 211 votes-Denson 1697 and Martin 1486.  He had until July 8th to challenge the election results.  Beasley Denson is expected to be sworn in as Tribal Chief on July10th.  He would become the third elected tribal chief since the 1830 Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek.(The Sun Herald, July 5, 2007, p. A1   and July 7, 2007, p. A7)

Chief Denson pursues Jackson County casino

Chief-elect Beasley Densonwas sworn into office at the Silver Star Casino and Convention Center near Philadelphia, Neshoba County, Mississippi.  One of Chief Denson’s first statements following his election as leader of the Mississippi Band of Choctaws was to declare that outcome of the non-binding referendum to be held in Jackson County in early November 2007, as regards the construction of a Choctaw casino in the county would be disregarded.  He said that the Choctaw people have decided to build a casino on Ms. Highway 57.(The Sun Herald, July 11, 2007, p. A1)

In mid-July, Franklin Leach, District 4 Supervisor, sent a letter to Chief Denson to request a public hearing on the proposed Jackson County casino.  Mr. Leach expressed his desire that the Choctaw leadership respect the results of the November non-binding referendum, proposed by former Chief Philip Martin.  Franklin Leach is listening to his constituents as there is a high degree of certitude that they oppose a casino of any kind in Jackson County.  He wishes that Chief Denson will development the Mississippi Band of Choctaw lands on Mississippi Highway 57 in a manner that will please and appease the citizen’s who live and work here.  It is generally held that Department of the Interior, the ultimate deciding entity for the proposed casino, will listen to the opinion of elected officials and not the results of the November 2007, non-binding referendum.  The religious community opines that the local politicians will abide by the wishes of their electorate.(The Sun Herald, July12, 2007, p. A7)

Pascagoula powwow

On August 28, 2007, Miko Beasley Denson, miko is the Choctaw word for chief, met with Mayor Connie Moran of Ocean Springs, Mayor Xavier Bishop of Moss Point, Gautier City Councilman Jeff Wilson, and a group of Jackson County businessmen in Pascagoula.  The Choctaw group asked that the details of the ‘powwow’ be kept confidential.  The community leaders were exposed to some of the casino plans and illustrations were presented.  Miko Denson and staff spoke of the Choctaw printing plant and injection molding company that they operate on their Ms. Highway No. 57 property, and how the revenues from these businesses contribute to the quality of life in Jackson County.  They also spoke of their casino could benefit the County.  The Jackson County coalition admonished the Mississippi Band of Choctaws that if they are not more specific with their casino plans and more convincing about how gaming will better the lives of the Counties voters, their quest to win the November 6th non-binding referendum on gaming will be a total failure.(The Sun Herald, September 5, 2007, p. A1 and A7)

Pascagoula powwow II

Melissa Mullinax, political advisor to Chief Beasley Denson, announced in mid-September 2007, that she had contacted Tim Broussard with the Jackson County Board of Supervisors in regards to a future meeting.  The Mississippi Band of Choctaws are poised to present their plans to build a $375 million casino to the Board of Supervisors at their public meeting in the near future.  The meeting time with the Jackson County Board of Supervisors was set for September 27th.  District 5 Supervisor John McKay related that in order for the Mississippi Band of Choctaws to convince the electorate in Jackson County to favor a casino they must sell the people and provide them with adequate information to make a decision on their proposed gaming project.  McKay said that unless more information is coming forth, the voters that participate in the November non-binding referendum “will vote it down big time, but they’ll probably do that anyway.”(The Sun Herald, September 14, 2007, p. A2, September 18, 2007, p. A3)

Public presentation

On September 26th, Beasley Denson, Tribal leader of the Mississippi Band of Choctaws and former resident of Pascagoula, addressed the Ocean Springs Rotary Club at its noon luncheon.  Here the Mississippi Band of Choctaws $375 million casino resort proposal for east Ocean Springs was unveiled to the public for the first time.  In addition to a casino, the Choctaw proposal includes: a hotel movie theatre, convention center, 27-hole golf course, and retail shops and boutiques.  Denson related to the one-hundred plus audience that after 3800 construction workers complete their task that 2800 permanent positions will be created at the Choctaw casino which will create $3.3 million dollars in State payroll taxes.  He also pledged that impact fees for roads, fire and police protection, and schools will be paid to local governments.  Chief Denson was assisted in the casino resort development presentation by John Hendrix, director of economic development for the Choctaw Nation.  (The Sun Herald, September 27, 2007, p. A1 and A5)

The ante

Meeting with the Jackson County Board of Supervisors at Pascagoula, Mississippi on September on September 27, 2007, Chief Beasley Denson offered 4% of the gross revenues from their proposed Mississippi Highway No. 57 casino resort to the citizens of Jackson County.  Denson related that he expected that the casino would generate about $7 million for the County and local governments.  These funds could provide the money  for roads and services that would be needed to support the increase in traffic and population caused by the growth and development from casino gaming within the County.  Chief Denson also told the Supervisors that it is the casino operators in Harrison and Hancock County that are opposed to the Choctaw casino and that future employment and revenues for the County are in jeopardy as well as the possibility that tax burdens could be lowered by the additional revenue generated from the Choctaw casino resort.(The Sun Herald,  September 28, 2007, p. A1)

The aint’s

As the November non-binding referendum approached, several public ? came out against the Choctaw casino resort at Ocean Springs.  In early October, The Sun Herald lashed out at Chief Beasley Denson

The vote

Election held on November 6, 2007.



2008 Moratorium rescinded

In June 2011, Larry Echo Hawk, assistant secretary for the Bureau Indian Affairs rescinded the 2008 moratorium issued during the Bush presidential administration which blocked an attempt by the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians to open a casino on their lands in Jackson County, Mississippi.  Mr. Hawk stated.  "The 2008 guidance memorandum was unnecessary and was issued without the benefit of tribal consultation.  We will proceed to process off-reservation gaming applications in a transparent manner, consistent with exisiting law."

2011 Elections

On June 14, 2011, The Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians held an election for their new chief [miko].  Nine candiates ran for the tribe's leadership and a run-off between Beasley Denson, incumbent, and Phyllis J. Anderson will be held in July 2011.  Mingo Denson polled 1598 votes and  P.J. Anderson garnered 872.(The Sun Herald, June 18, 2011, p. A3) 

In early, September 2011, Phyliss J. Anderson (b. 1961) defeated Beasley Denson (b. 1950) to become the first woman elected as Chief of the Mississippi Band of Choctaws.  On July 15, 2011, Ms. Anderson defeated Miko Beasley Denson and Shirley Berg garnering 55% of the vote in a runoff.  She had been named the winner, but the results were declared void forcing the September 6, 2011 election.  Phyllis Anderson was sworn in as Chief of the Mississippi Band of Choctaws on October 5, 2011.(The Sun Herald, September 8, 2011, p. A8 and October 6, 2011, p. A5)

Center Pointe Non-Denominational Church

Pastor Ted Pagel trying to get the church building ready for an October 2, 2011 worship service.(The Sun Herald, September 21, 2011, p. A2)


The Bay Press

The Bay Press, “Choctaw casino gets a ‘no-go’ at Jackson County public hearing”, October 27, 2006, p. 1.

The Bay Press, “What Now?-Views on Rebuilding the Coast”, November 3, 2006, p. 3.

The Bay Press, “Choctaw Indian gaming: Hot topic”, October 5, 2007, p. 5.

The Mississippi Press

The Mississippi Press, “Jackson County pastors to consider casino concerns”, June 27, 2006, p. 1-A.

The Mississippi Press, “Pastors put new spin on casino protest”, October 8, 2006, p. 1-A.

The Mississippi Press, “Choctaws give details on $375 MM casino”, October 17, 2006, p. 1-A.

The Mississippi Press, “Will vote on casino count?, October 17, 2006, p. 1-A.

The Mississippi Press, “Casino opposition”, October 19, 2006, p. 1-A.

The Mississippi Press, “Casino rejected”, November 7, 2007, p. 1-A.

The Mississippi Press, “Choctaw casino action delayed”, November 14, 2007, p. 1-A.

The Ocean Springs Record

The Ocean Springs Record, “Good Ole Boys-‘Mississippi Band of Choctaws has arrived’ ”, July 10, 1997, p. 4.

The Ocean Springs Record, “Choctaws may build, but no casinos”, January 23, 2003, p. A1

The Ocean Springs Record, “Choctaws eye [Ms. Highway] 57 for Casino”, May 11, 2006, p. A1.

The Ocean Springs Record, “Tribe, officials agree casino vote a must”, May 18, 2006, p. A1.

The Ocean Springs Record, “Choctaws outline plans for OS land”, October 19, p. A1.

The Ocean Springs Record, “Local residents voice opposition to Choctaws”, October 26, 2006, p. A1.

The Ocean Springs Record, “County to ask Legislature for casino vote”, February 15, 2007, p. A1.

The Ocean Springs Record, “Aldermen united in opposing JC casino”, March 22, 2007, p. A1.

The Ocean Springs Record, “AG says non-binding casino vote OK to go”, March 29, 2007, p. A1.

The Ocean Springs Record, “Choctaw Indian Casino: Hot Topic”, October 4, 2007, p. A1.

The Ocean Springs Record, “Sign wars”, November 1. 2007, p. A1.

The Ocean Springs Record, “Voters say no to casino, yes to Byrd, Brodnax”, November 8, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw casino tax exempt”, May 18, 2006, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw casino debated”, May 19, 2006, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws should not use their tribal status to circumvent gaming laws in South Mississippi”, May 21, 2006, p. B10.

The Sun Herald, “Jackson County: Show us the dough”, June 1, 2006, p. F1.

The Sun Herald, “To the People of Jackson County, MS”, June 1, 2006, p. F4.

The Sun Herald, “92 deal may dictate Choctaws Coast plan”, June 11, 2006, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Doing Business in Jackson County”, June 11, 2006, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw plan faces long list of hurdles”, June 19, 2006.

The Sun Herald, “Ministers oppose casinos”, June 29, 2006, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws deny donating to Alabama governor race”, June 30, 2006, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “Other Voices”-‘Choctaws should adhere to same rules as all other state casinos’, [reprinted from The Clarion-Ledger, Jackson, Mississippi], September 11, 2006, p. B2.

The Sun Herald, “Tribal casino bill defeated”, September 14, 2006, p. D8.

The Sun Herald, “Bureau to hold hearing on casino”, October 6, 2006, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw hearing notice disputed”, October 7, 2006, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “County raps Choctaws on hearing”, October 13, 2006, p. A13.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws should abandon effort to place a casino in Jackson County”, October 15, 2006, B6.

The Sun Herald, “What is the law?”, October 15, 2006, B6.

The Sun Herald, “Unfair competition creates uncertainty”, October 15, 2006, B6.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw casino hearing tonight”, October 18, 2006, A1.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw’s hear casino opposition”, October 19, 2006, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “The sooner, the better”, October 24, 2006, p. B8.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw issue delays investment”, October 27, 2006, p. C12.

The Sun Herald, “Lawyer hired to fight Choctaws”, December 6, 2006, p. A7.


The Sun Herald, “Pastor group plans to oppose Choctaw casino”, January 23, 2007, p. A5.

The Sun Herald, “Officials, gambling foes meet”, February 1, 2007, p. A.

The Sun Herald, “County can hold election on tribal casino”, February 2, 2007, p. A7.

The Sun Herald, “Officials, gambling foes meet”, February 1, 2007, p. A.

The Sun Herald, “Vote on Choctaw casino up in air”, February 3, 2007, p. A3.

The Sun Herald, “Casino vote may be pursued”, February 4, 2007, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “Pastors relent on prompt gambling vote”, February 16, 2007, p. A5.

The Sun Herald, “Casino group sues over records requests”, February 16, 2007, p. A5.

The Sun Herald, “County officially requests OK for casino vote”, February 21, 2007, p. A4.

The Sun Herald, “Casino vote gets the green light”, March 9, 2007, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “Casino foes will push proposal in April”, March 17, 2007, p. A15.

The Sun Herald, “Expedited AG opinion sought”, March 25, 2007, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “A mayor is obligated to weigh all economic options”, March 25, 2007, p. B11.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw chief facing increased criticism”, March 26, 2007, p. A7.

The Sun Herald, “In a word, AG says, ‘Yes’”, March 28, 2007, p. A8.

The Sun Herald, “Officials in Biloxi and Ocean Springs are sending out dangerous signals”, March 28, 2007, p. B4.

The Sun Herald, “Jackson County will vote on tribal casino”, April 3, 2007, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “A mayor is obligated to know the facts on tribal gaming”, April 4, 2007, p. B3.

The Sun Herald, “Tribe is steadfast about casino project”, April 7, 2007, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws provide some community support”, April 23, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Off-reservation casino rules may shift”, May 8. 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Candidate blasts tribal casino plan”, June 9, 2007, p. A6.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw’s long reign over?”, June 14, 2007, p. a1.

The Sun Herald, “Chief Martin: Casino foes backing my opponent”, June 21, 2007, p. A3.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws elect chief today”, July 3, 2007, p. A8.

The Sun Herald, “Denson may be new chief”, July 5, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws may not pursue casino”, July 6, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Chief Martin concedes”, July 7, 2007, p.  A7.

The Sun Herald, “New chief: Vote won’t affect plan”, July 11, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Denson: Casino up to Choctaws”, July 12, 2007, p. A7.

The Sun Herald, “Students hear Choctaw gaming chair”, July 25, 2007, p. A6.

The Sun Herald, “Chief, official meet on casino”, September 5, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw chief, supervisors to meet”, September 14, 2007, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “Supervisors to hear Choctaws on Sept. 27”, September 18, 2007, p. A3.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws present casino plan”, September 27, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws offer share of profits”, September 28, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw chief does not trust voters of Jackson County, so why should they trust him?”, October 3, 2007, p. C4.

The Sun Herald, “Board votes against casino”, October 4, 2007, p. A6.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw Web site quotes disputed”, October 13, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Ads promoting Choctaw casino are offensive”, October 24, 2007, p. C4.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw casino vote, like Tivoli proposal, divides us”, October 31, 2007, p. B10.

The Sun Herald, “Retired General [Major General Paul Harvey] wooed to lead tribal casino resort”, October 31, 2007, p. B10.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws press ahead on casino”, November 8, 2007, p. A10.

The Sun Herald, “Anti-gaming resolution shelved by board”, November 14, 2007, p. A5.

The Sun Herald, “Supervisors take stand against casino”, November 27, 2007, p. A6.


The Sun Herald, “Bureau rejects Choctaws”, January 8, 2007, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Opportunities still abound for Choctaws”, January 10, 2008, p. C2.

The Sun Herald, “Opportunities still abound for Choctaws”, January 10, 2008, p. C2.

The Sun Herald, “Indian casinos warned”, February 28, 2008, p. D8.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws eye new ventures”, May 10, 2008, p. A1.


The Gazette,“Martin’s legacy’s one of Choctaw ‘self-determination’”, February 3,  2010, p. 5.

Mississippi History News Letter, “Longtime Choctaw Chief”, Vol. 52, No. 3-March 2010.

The Sun Herald, “Former Choctaw Chief hailed a great leader”, February 5, 2010, p. .

The Sun Herald, “Martin’s legacy as Choctaw Chief has been long and legendary”, February, 2010, p. .

The Sun Herald, “Nearly 1000 attend ex-chief’s funeral”, February, 2010, p. .

The Sun Herald, “”, February, 2010, p. .


The Sun Herald, “Luck could change for Choctaw casino in Jackson County”, June 18, 2011, p. A1.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw chief race goes to runoff election”, February 18, 2011, p. A3.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws' dream is Jackson County's nightmare", June 21, 2011, p. A13.

The Sun Herald, “Anderson 1st woman to win Choctaw chief election”, September 8, 2011, p. A8.

The Sun Herald, “Church will open on Choctaw Indian land”, September 21, 2011, p. A2.

The Sun Herald, “Anderson takes oath as Choctaws' chief”, October 6, 2011, p. A5.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaws ink $78M debt deal with Trustmark”, March 1, 2012, p. C6.

The Sun Herald, “Choctaw casino in Jackson Couty still off the radar”, July 6, 2012, p. A5..

The Sun Herald, “Indian tribes opeing casinos far from home”, July 6, 2012, p.A1.
The Sun Herald, “”,